, where:

k_{B} = Boltzmann Constant (J/K)

R = Universal Gas Constant (J/(K*mol))

N_{A} = Avogadro Constant (1/mol)

Euler's Number, often simply referred to as "e", is a key constant in mathematics, with numerous applications. The formula which formally defines it is the limit as n approaches infinity of the equation below.

, where:

e = Euler's Number

, where:

I = Specific Radiative Intensity ((W*s)/(m^{2}*sr))

h = Planck Constant (J*s)

= Frequency (Hz)

c = Speed of Light (m/s)

e = Euler's Number

k = Thermal Conductivity (W/(m*K))

T = Temperature (K)

, where:

P = Radiative Power (W)

= Stefan-Boltzmann Constant (W/(m^{2}*K^{4}))

A = Area of Radiation (m^{2})

T = Temperature (K)