, where:

s = Final Relative Velocity (m/s)

u = Velocity of reference frame one (m/s)

v = Velocity of reference frame two (m/s)

c = Speed of Light (m/s)

, where:

E = Kinetic Energy (J)

m = Mass (kg)

c = Speed of Light (m/s)

= Lorentz Factor

, where:

L' = Observed Length (m)

L = Proper Length in Rest Frame (m)

= Lorentz Factor

The formula for the Lorentz factor is derived from the Lorentz transformations, used in special relativity. It can be easily calculated when the velocity of an object is known.

, where:

= Lorentz Factor

v = Observed Velocity (m/s)

c = Speed of Light (m/s)

, where:

E = Energy (J)

m = Mass (kg)

c = Speed of Light (m/s)