Thermodynamics

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Avogadro Constant

 , where:

NA = Avogadro Constant (1/mol)

Boltzmann Constant

 , where:

kB = Boltzmann Constant (J/K)

R = Universal Gas Constant (J/(K*mol))

NA = Avogadro Constant (1/mol)

Carnot Theorem

 , where:

 = Carnot efficiency of a heat engine (%), max. possible efficieny of a heat engine.

Tc = Low temperature of heat cycle (K)

tH = High temperature of heat cycle (K)

Change in Entropy

 for Constant Volume, Constant Pressure, and Constant Temperature, respectively.  Where:

S = Entropy (J/K)

n = Number of moles (mol)

Cv , Cp= Specific heat at constant volume or pressure (J/(kg*K))

T = Temperature (K)

R = Ideal Gas Constant (J/(mol*K))

V = Volume (m3)

0 subscript indicates initial value.

Clausius Theorem of Physics Thermodynamics

The Clasius Theorem Inequality, demonstrates how entropy limits the efficiency of a thermodynamic process:

 , where:

Q = Heat (J)

T = Temperature (K)

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