, where:

C = Heat Capacity (J/K)

m = Mass of sample (kg)

c = Specific Heat Capacity (J/(kg*K))

, where:

c_{p} = Specific Heat Capacity at a Constant Pressure (J/(kg*K))

m = Mass of sample (kg)

Q = Heat Transferred (J)

T = Temperature (K)

p = Constant Pressure (p)

, where:

m = Mass of sample (kg)

Q = Heat energy transferred (J)

T = Temperature (K)

V = Constant Volume (m^{3})

c_{v} = Specific Heat Capacity at a constant volume (J/(kg*K))

, where:

= Heat Capacity Ratio is approximately:

- 1.4 for Oxygen (Natural Gas)
- 1.7 for Argon
- 1.4 for Hydrogen
- 1.3 for Water (Steam)

C_{P} = Heat Capacity at a Constant Pressure (J/K)

C_{V} = Heat Capacity at a Constant Volume (J/K)

, where:

A = Helmholtz Free Energy (J)

U = Internal Energy (J)

T = Temperature (K)

S = Entropy (J/K)